As you are designing your model train layouts, model train layouts tunnels should be included in your plan. The model train layouts tunnel is very necessary on most mountainous layouts. Tunnels are also very helpful to hide your trains from view when it crosses the landscape. Realism suffers if your trains are in full view all the time. It needs to show the audiences that your trains are coming and going from somewhere to somewhere.
When you include any tunnel and it seems the train appear from a tunnel or hidden valley etc. It looks more realistic and also seems it just traveling around in a circle. You can purchase tunnel or can make your own. If you want to buy tunnel, you will find it at any hobby shop as plaster cast forms simulating wood, cut stone, random stone, etc. You can also paint them with brown, tan, gray or whatever you want. If you have any inclination, you can make your own plaster cast.
You can also use strips of basswood to create your own wooden tunnel. There is an easy way. You can use beaded Styrofoam which comes in boxes of packing material for other items. You should make sure that you have enough clearance for all your train equipment to get through the portal. Now you can paint the portal with concrete-color and can add a spray of gray to enhance the crevices.
As the train enter or leave the tunnel, you can add a darker stain of gray or black to the top of the portal. It can be curved to match the course of the truck. Now cut another piece of Styrofoam and it will cover the tops of the wall.
Then use wadded newspaper to create mountain over the Styrofoam tunnel and covered this with plaster cloth. And cover the newspaper wads with cellophane. Now your job is to open a can of the great stuff and spray on a mountain over this cellophane-covered newspaper, leaving an opening on each end of the tunnel for the portal.
Leave this overnight to dry. Then reach in through the portal on each side and pull out the newspaper wads. The plastic wrap ought to keep the newspaper from sticking out to the nice Stuff. You need to form the sides and top of the tunnel and cover this with wadded newspaper and then plaster cloth to finish the mountain form.
You should not neglect the inside part of the tunnel. Be concern about the part which is visible from outside. Take a piece of black, brown or gray cardstock, or construction paper, cut it to the proper size and insert the rolled cardstock into one end of the tunnel. Allow the cardstock to unfold and position it in order that it creates rounded within walls for the top of the tunnel. That way, after you inspect the top of the tunnel, you simply see black or gray walls rather than plaster or cardboard webbing.
You can use rock castings for the inside walls of the ends of the tunnel or use Sculptamold to line the inside walls and then paint it with washes as you would do with regular rocks. It can another nice way to decorate the inside of the tunnel.I'm working on a new layout that has an O outer loop, elevated 7" where I'm thinking a mountain with tunnel would be very appropriate.
What have you guys done for mountains in corners in these instances? Show me what you got! Mountains with cliffs and some flat sections to mount smallish structures like a rotating beacon would be awesome to see.
I'm envisioning something like 2. Below is the corner of my layout. The yellow is elevated 7". The curve inside that is O64 and not sure if that should be included in the "mountain" or just add a retaining wall behind it, curved and connecting 7" platform to table.
Thoughts here would also kindly be helpful. Grid is 1' x 1'. Replies sorted oldest to newest. I will add a few comments about your plans. If your upper level is and your adjacent lower level isthat leaves 4" center to center between these adjacent tracks.
How to Create a Mountain With a Tunnel for a Model Railroad Layout
As your plan shows, that is really tight. The dimension between the and your inner circle look even tighter.
The NMRA standards gauge gives a clearance dimension of 2. Please keep this in mind if you choose to build a retaining wall between the two levels of tracks.
How to make tunnels for model train layouts
You do not want your engines or rolling stock to "hit the wall", so to speak, going around the lower level. Do not under estimate the "side clearance" required for a train to go around a curve. You also may have some issues with trying to find tunnel portals to work in that tight space. I had to modify mine in order for them to clear everything. To make everything work if you want to go with a tunnel, you may have to incorporate all 3 of the corner tracks "in the tunnel" in order to avoid clearance problems and then fabricate your own tunnel portals.Rather than going out and buying a mountain with a tunnel for your model railway, make your own customized mountain.
A homemade mountain with a tunnel will save you money and will perfectly fit the theme of your railroad -- such as winter scene, autumn harvest or desert landscape. Determine how big the inside of the tunnel needs to be for your trains to run through it smoothly.
Sketch a plan for the mountain, including measurements from Step 1 and the location on the track where the mountain will go. Paint the mountain to match your railway's theme. Add grass, trees, rocks, pebbles, dirt, fake snow or even small plastic animals. She began her career scripting spots and auction items for a local public broadcasting affiliate.
Model Railroad Mountain
O'Boyle is self-taught with a background in art and graphic design. Share It. Bend chicken wire into the shape of the interior of the tunnel. Cover it with plastic wrap. Cover the chicken-wire form completely with the plaster-soaked paper strips. Mold modeling plaster over the form, shaping it into a mountain. Allow it to dry completely. Cover the entire finished product with acrylic finish for protection.
Things You'll Need. About the Author. Photo Credits.I decided to place my mountain above the fireplace in our great room, but didn't want to block the windows. It's about 65" wide, 13" tall, and 12" deep. I designed the mountain to fit over the existing trackbed and provide a tunnel for the train to go through. Most important was testing the train and track to ensure it would fit through the tunnel without scraping the side. Unfortunately, I didn't take a decent picture of how to attach the chicken wire.
I laid the chicken wire over the ribbed frame and then stapled it down with brad nails. It was easy to form the wire into the shape that I wanted, providing plenty of "rock-like" faces. If you decide to do a tunnel, be sure to completely cover the entrance; you can cut it open later. Use wire cutters to trim off the excess chicken wire. Once the shape of the mountain is complete, stuff the form with newspaper.
This will give the spray foam something to stick to. Use as much newspaper as you can and don't worry if you cover the space for the tunnel -- you will be removing the newspaper once the foam dries. Important: Apply the foam in a well ventilated area! I ended up using "Great Stuff" spray foam intended to fill small " gaps.
I tried the foam for larger gaps, but it didn't seem to make much of a difference. In fact, I thought it was harder to work with. Hold the can close to the wire frame and begin applying it in rows. The foam will expand slightly after application so you don't have to pile it up. You will need more cans of spray foam then you originally estimated. It looks like it goes a long way, but unfortunately does not. Keep in mind that once you open the can it will need to be used completely.
The outside of the foam will harden in a couple of hours and become completely solid in about 24 hours. Don't rush it you don't want to cut into the gooey center. Once the spray foam has completely hardened, you can begin carving. As I mentioned in the previous step, be patient. The foam will expand a lot as it dries so you'll have plenty of area to carve on.
I used a fine-toothed pull saw to carve the faces of the rock.This is so that the tips are relevant for each individual punter and their own specific circumstances. Tom Clarke has been on the staff at Golf Monthly since 2009 and bets on a range of sports.
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Choose Purchase revenue from the list of goal metrics, and select any additional metrics you want to track, such as retention and daily engagement. Note that this event will not appear in the list until it has been logged once. Now that you have set up your predictions and experiments in the Firebase console, implement the promotion strategies from each of your experiment variants.
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Please view our site in a different, standards-adherent browser such as Firefox, Safari, or Chrome, or upgrade your Internet Explorer browser to Version 8 or Version 9. With 2016 moving into its closing stages, drupa a distant memory and reverberations still being felt from another successful Labelexpo Americas, the label and package printing industry is on the crest of a wave that promises to take it straight into a bumper Labelexpo Europe 2017. These developments will continue to take place as run lengths decrease, more versions and variations are required, time to market decreases, and ever-more complex and exciting label solutions are created.
It is all of these demands and pressure that will increasingly see label and package printing companies move rapidly towards ever more automation of both their administration and production process workflows, using sophisticated management information systems (MIS) that will be integrated with specialized inspection and color performance software and technology, through to fully automated press and finishing line set-up.
In 2017, the European Flexographic Industry Association (EFIA) anticipates that the pace of change is not going to slow. Technology is changing the way consumers are shopping and the internet has opened up myriad ways for consumers to make informed decisions about what they buy. Competition to sell is therefore intense.
The retail journey is also changing from big box supermarket shopping to convenience driven multi-trip shopping patterns. Ultimately this is opening up a range of opportunities for the print industry in offering pack and product personalization, customization and premiumization. Brands want to add value to their packs to create differentiation.
As a result of these trends, and confirmed by members and partners, EFIA is seeing a keen focus on stand out graphic design utilizing new tactile coatings and ink effects, as well as the use of complementary flexo and digital print systems to deliver short runs of customized packs.
Pack designs are being tested more regularly with sophisticated variable data to connect to digital marketing campaigns enticing the consumer.However, while programmatic distribution has moved mountains for advertisers in one sense, ad creative has yet to evolve to achieve maximum impact on every device and screen. In 2016, dynamic creative production will come into play in a big way to complement programmatic distribution.
By automating the production process, advertisers can ensure their content maximises its full potential across all devices, each and every time. Greater efforts will be made to ensure ads and formats provide an interesting UX that will genuinely engage users, rather than irritate them. We can expect to see advertising become more creative, tasteful, and (subtly) relevant as a result. We will also see greater numbers of publishers prompting their users to disable ad blocking in in order access free content.
Think high-impact and higher-value. But this challenge will be overcome in 2016 and this will allow formats to finally evolve. When producing content and advertising for Discover, publishers need to create highly visual stories with short attention spans in mind. This trend will continue and grow in 2016 (and beyond), leading to significant changes in the presentation of mobile content and advertising.
User-initiated videos will become mainstream, boasting enhanced performance metrics that provide advertisers with genuine insights into actual views and time spent on ads. Cross-platform video campaigns that leverage the unique strengths of each platform, and consider the implications that each has on the entire buying cycle, will be the Achilles heel of TV and the future of advertising.
In fact, the number of ad blocker users has exploded of late, with one-in-five UK adults implementing one. The smartphone is now our go-to device in the UK, the first thing we pick up in the morning and the last thing we look at before going to sleep. Marketers will need to ensure their campaigns are truly cross-screen, thinking mobile-first when approaching their business strategies.
The investment in these new formats will be centered on native video, allowing text-based publishers to tap into fast growing video advertising budgets. Viewability became a hot topic in 2015 for desktop video advertising.
We should expect to have profound impacts on mobile video advertising, changing the way advertisers allocate spend and price to actual user engagement.
Mobile video has strong potential to drive engagement beyond the actual view, like app installs, and convert users down the funnel. This will be powerful given the immersive nature of both of these formats, which will have a huge impact on mobile advertising landscape.
What I mean by that is essentially retailers becoming agencies. Retail brands have long been delving into the world of publishing by creating custom content for their sites around recipes or seasonal allergy guides.
The next logical step is to become retail trading desks too. The point of sale and customer relationship management (CRM) data supermarket chains are constantly gathering is richer than anything any media agency or brand has access to. This data runs both offline and online and brands desperate to better understand their customers would jump at the opportunity to access it.
Some global retailers have already been experimenting with this approach, notably Amazon and Walmart, as well as others such as Coles in Australia, but 2016 will be the year the global retail sector really wakes up to the potential of the retail trading desk. The coming year will see major strides in the aggregation of data from disparate sources into a single view that can be used to drive holistic marketing strategies.
Marketers will continue to adopt data management platforms (DMPs) and increase their focus on unifying marketing and advertising data and messaging, resulting in the eventual merger of ad tech and martech. It will also mean increased collaboration and validated technological partnerships between mid-sized companies looking to make sure their individual solutions can work interoperably towards common marketing goals.
The value of third-party data will be further scrutinised as marketers ask, how valuable is data that just about anyone can purchase. And, with the rise of walled gardens, will second-party data become fragmented.
To allow advertisers the best opportunity to engage with consumers, first-party data must still rule. One way we expect brands and agencies to make sure their digital campaigns hit home next year is via an increased focus on moment marketing. Campaigns can be synced to a wide range of events that are likely to impact consumer behaviour, for example a change in the weather, the score of a football match or the screening of a major TV ad campaign.